This is a very interesting, deep topic that its a reality in our society and professional world.
I will give you my perspective on the topic. Its my opinion so others may not agree with me.
The low number or percentage of Women in Engineering is the result of different things: how we are raised as women, how our society is built and what we tell ourselves.
How are we raised?
We are raised to be princess. To be perfect, to be well behave and have good manners. To dream of a castle and a hero to save us for evil. And ultimately raised to be a good women and good wife. But the question is... where is ourselves in all of the above? We are raised to serve and please others with our graciousness. And this mindset is carried in what we choose as a career: Nurses, Teachers, Administration, etc. Why? bc all of this careers their main focus is service.
But when we think how we raise boys... they are suppose to be strong, bold, brave, conquerors and inventors. And all this is carried into what they choose for a career: engineers, doctors, business person, bankers, etc.
How our society is built?
We are considered the weak link, the care givers. And society respect our capacity to give life but do not respect our intelligence and our inventive. Yes, we may not have the physical strength to carry 50 lbs of sand but trust me if we need to do it... we will get a way to do it. We will either invent something to carry it or we will convince someone to do for us. And our society tells us constantly you can do it.
What we tell ourselves?
We constantly accept negative thought about what we can do or what we deserve. We prefer to let go than to fight because if we fight we are not fighters we are aggressive women. If you spoke what you think and put your foot down, you are bossy. Aren't those characteristics of a good leader?
We need more women engineers to support other women because even between us we criticize. We say Oh my Gosh! She is insane for stopping her career to raised her kids. Or She is such a bad mother! She leaves her kids with her husband while she travels to her projects. Yes, her husband left her because she was so focus in her career that she didn't took care of her marriage. Isn't this a double standard?
If you need more info to support your paper, here are some good links: